internal forces during the tumbling motion, after the rigidization. By considering the worst case scenario as defined by ESA, in which ENVISAT initially spins about its body-fixed y-axis (unstable, since the intermediate axis of inertia), the robot internal torque at the end-effector is now determined. Example fo end-effector camera image rendered with ASTOS (Bottom). Figure 9. Arm stereo camera system with illumination units mounted on the gripper with mounting bracket (Left and Top Right) and platform-mounted camera system for relative spacecraft pose and motion estimation (Middle Right). Using this environment, a Monte-Carlo analysis was conducted, which purpose was to: (1) get an assessment of the expected pose estimation error, and (2) specify for which lighting conditions the proposed method works to a sufficient degree.
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Generally, it was found that a lack of light contrast in critical areas does not allow detecting some of the important lines of the simplified model for the purpose of the tracking, which in turn does not allow accurate pose estimation. While the GNC was assumed to operate at 1Hz, the arm control was assumed to run at 1kHz, thus neglecting the sampling time of the end-effector camera pose estimation sampling time (typically 10 Hz) for model simplification. It was also recognized that the LAR provides a particularly difficult pose estimation task, due to its lack of evident and easily recognizable features. остра болка в крака
. First, the task of tracking the LAR on Envisat should be fulfilled in Cartesian space with a compliance behavior; secondly, the motion in the null space of the robot should be controlled. The compliance during the approaching phase is provided with the virtual Cartesian forces vector F at the end-effector in (11) and it is modeled like a PD (proportional-derivative) behavior.
This is the function of a Cartesian virtual force F, later defined, which allows compliance between the end effector and the grasping point. Notice that Γ acts as an internal damping torque and it will not interfere with the end effector motion. The latter is also strongly conditioned by the requirements of the chaser GNC system, in order to guarantee collision avoidance with the target and to guarantee visibility to the proximity sensor. Let Ni be the length of branch i, di be the degrees of freedom of joint Ji, J the total number of joints, and B the total number of rigid bodies. Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt, where e is the residual, s is the image coordinates of the matching edge to the projected point y, and np is the number of matching pairs.
These results were obtained after tuning of the image processing algorithm parameters. Further efforts to increase the robustness of the image processing will include introducing a third camera with a different perspective, e.g., on the chaser satellite. This is because in each column there is at least one sub-sequence with significant errors, with the exception of the third column (Sun in -y). Each sequence consisted of 560 frames, sampled at 1/10 s. Each entry in the table is related to an approach sequence to the tumbling client. Table 2. Structural parameters for the flexibility simulation: outer and inner diameter of the cylindrical tube (di, o), Youngs modulus (E), and Poisson’s ratio (ν). Table 3. Monte-Carlo average error results with rows indicating tumbling rotation axis and approach start time (seq. Note also, that the case of target initial angular velocity about the body-fixed z-axis (stable, since maximum axis of inertia), yield torque values below 80 Nm.
The rows indicate the tumbling rotation axis (y/z) and approach start times (seq. During pose estimation, the matching error is computed using the stereo camera images and projection parameters. болки в ставите на коляното
. We remark that the stereo system is used as a multi-camera configuration so that the visual tracking should be able to proceed with a monocular camera, but slightly lowered accuracy. This configuration is used due to the required redundancy in space electronics to minimize the mission costs. Also, the simple relationship between the size of the sphere (its radius) and its mass properties (inertia and mass) is used to extract the general trends with respect to spacecraft size.