At the end of a post-processing phase articulated according to the specific production technology, it is possible to provide a replica of the anatomy of interest. Today, thanks to 3D printing (3DP) technology, we can make a further step, moving from the virtual world to the physical one. Although 3DP was born in the mid-1980s, only in recent years has it started to become widely known in both surgical and non-surgical worlds. Surgical planning has gone through many different stages in the evolutionary history of modern medicine, moving simultaneously with the progression of the available technologies for diagnostic imaging. Additive manufacturing is the formalised term for what used to be called rapid prototyping (RP), and what is popularly called 3DP. The term RP is used in a variety of industries to describe a process for rapidly creating a system or part representation before final release or commercialisation.13 Thus, from a technical point, 3DP is a subset of AM.
An STL file outlines the geometrical representation of the object through a mesh (for example a series of oriented triangles). The main objective is to reduce the complexity of the original image, leaving a comprehensive representation of the characteristics of interest. These structures are characterised by greater homogeneity on the radiological image, but the algorithm is based on several assumptions that sometimes limit the range of applications. 15 or Eq. 23 for planar FFSMS, we conclude that the term gh exhibits similar characteristics to those of the gravity terms in fixed base manipulators (Siciliano et al., 2009), if the gravity vector is substituted for gh.
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The worldwide accepted standard for 3DP is the standard triangulation language (STL) file. The next step is to move to a suitable format for successive 3DP purposes. The first step in the generation of a PS model is the extraction of the target geometry from medical images. The second step is to define one or more starting points on the images; the spherical surfaces from which the algorithm will start its evolution. In particular, as one of the key technical challenges, robotic detumbling techniques have thus far been addressed for secure capture of an uncooperative target. 3DP has recently been defined as the third industrial revolution; this definition seems to be particularly suitable in relation to the huge number of possibilities offered by this technology in various fields, including the medical one. 3DP is based on an additive manufacturing (AM) process that can realise objects by adding material layer by layer, rather than by subtraction from the raw material as is the case with conventional technologies.
Guide des tailles
Repeated Impact-Based Control
Une variété de couleurs
Неизвестен Производител и Произход
Ускоряване на регенерацията на хрущялната тъкан
State of the Art
увеличава подвижността на ставите
The segmentation process that allows translation from medical images to the virtual model consists of extracting the specific structure in each layer of the image dataset. From a practical point of view, the segmentation of a picture consists of assigning to each pixel a label, which establishes the membership of a particular group. From the simple radiographs of the early 1900s, we arrived at modern acquisition systems such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provide the surgeon with detailed reconstructions of the patient anatomy, in combination with advances in image processing. пулсираща болка в коляното
. Its great success in these fields stems from the ease of medical image processing as it mainly involves bone structures, offering clear visiblity and contrast. To date, 3DP has begun to have an emerging role in some medical fields, such as dentistry, orthopaedics and traumatology.